March 4, 2020

## Functions in R

• How do you write a new function in R?
• What are its parts? How many of each one?

## Functions in R

### How do you write a new function in R?

 name <- function(input) {
commands;
return(output)
}

### What are its parts? How many of each one?

• name, only one.
• input, zero or more.
• commands, one or more.
• output, only one or zero.

## Example: drawing a stick-person

draw_person <- function(size) {
turtle_left(180)
turtle_forward(size/2)
turtle_left(90)
draw_arm(size)
turtle_left(180)
draw_arm(size)
turtle_left(90)
turtle_forward(size*3/2)
turtle_left(40)
draw_leg(size)
turtle_right(40)
draw_leg(size)
}

• What is the name?
• What are the inputs?
• What is the output?
• What is the code?

Write the functions draw_head(), draw_arm() and draw_leg().

Each function must leave the turtle in the same position and the same angle as before

Your function can move the turtle as you wish, but it must leave the turtle as it was at the beginning of the function

## This is a Contract

Each part commits to do something

Each part makes a promise

We promise to leave the turtle in the same position as we received it

## Arm and Leg

draw_arm <- function(size) {
turtle_forward(size)
turtle_backward(size)
}
draw_leg <- function(size) {
old_pos <- turtle_getpos()
old_angle <- turtle_getangle()
turtle_forward(size*3/2)
turtle_left(90)
turtle_forward(size/2)
turtle_setangle(old_angle)
turtle_setpos(old_pos, old_pos)
}

## Smallest of two values

The contract is this:

• Our function will get two numbers, let’s say a and b
• We must return one number: the smallest value between a and b

Let’s write a function for this

## Making a function

• What will be the name?
• What will be the inputs?
• What will be the output?
• What is the code?

## Making a decision in Scratch

if <> then

There are two version: if-then and if-then-else

These command takes one logic condition and one or two code blocks

Most of times we use only if-then

## Conditionals in R

if(cond) {
# do this only if cond is true
}
if(cond) {
# do this only if cond is true
} else {
# do this only if cond is false
}

## For the “Smallest of two values”

• if a is smaller than b
• then the answer is a
• else (a isn’t smaller than b)
• then the answer is b
if(a<b) {
} else {
}

## Smallest of three

The contract is this:

• Our function will get three numbers, let’s say a, b, and c
• We must return one number: the smallest value between a, b, and c

Let’s write a function for this

## Making a function

• What will be the name?
• What will be the inputs?
• What will be the output?
• What is the code?

## Smallest of many

The contract is this:

• Our function will get a vector of numbers, let’s say x
• We must return one number: the smallest value of x

Let’s write a function for this

## Making a function

• What will be the name?
• What will be the inputs?
• What will be the output?
• What is the code?

## Exercise

Make these functions using only for(), if() and indices. You cannot use the words min or max. The input is a vector called x.

Please write the code of the following functions:

1. smallest_value(x). Returns the smallest element in x.
2. largest_value(x). Returns the largest element in x.
3. place_of_smallest(x). Returns the index of the smallest element in x.
4. place_of_largest(x). Returns the index of the largest element in x.

## You can test your function with the following code.

x <- sample(5:20, size=10, replace=TRUE)
min(x)
smallest_value(x)

The two results must be the same.

(We will study the function sample later)